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Old 04-19-2011, 11:24 AM   #1
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Default Subnet Masks | Router Ports | IP Ranges | Ect...

I am using a Westell Model 6100 Proline wired router.

The router has two connection plugins:
- one plugin connection to the telephone outside line (simple), and
- one plugin connection that I have plugged into the ISDN modem that came out with old Compaq machine.

Over the past 10 years, I have used only the Dialup modem, so this router business is a very new to me.

The router installation went pretty well, but I soon found that it had an internal firewall that allows for custom settings to be made. After setting the firewall to much stricter levels and setting it to LOG all Inbound connection attempts, I soon found that there were MANY MANY different people (computers) from around the world (mostly China) trying to connect to my computer, even when there was NO web activity coming from my end.

After experimenting around with the router firewall settings, I found that I WAS able to block ALL Inbound traffic, on all ports from Port 0 to 65535 and was still able to connect to any website.

Later, I began to experiment with blocking as many Outbound ports as possible. With all Outbound ports blocked, from port 0 to 65535 (except port 80), I have still been able to do pretty much the same as before, but occasionally I do have to reload a web page (seldom). These settings I have applied for both TCP & UDP.

I normally always shut down my computer at the end of the day, disconnect the router from the internet & unplug the power to it. On restarting the next day, I can first plug in the power to the router, then immediately turn on the computer (remember this is the Win 98SE startup time added in), and everything always works fine, with no problems connecting to the router & then to the internet that I have found.

The problem with the extremely strict router firewall settings that I have is this:
if I need to Restart my computer for any variety of reasons (remember this is Win 98Se), the router will NOT recognize and connect up to the computer after the restart. On my "TCPview" program (Sysinternals.com-Russinovich...) I get the standard link local IP address that comes up when there is no connection to the router. I think it's something that starts with 169.xxx.xxx.xxx. If I shut the computer down completely and power down the router, as in a cold restart, everything works just fine as before.

One of the first things I have tried is to allow the lower port range between the router & my computer (with the IP address range set between them):

Rule Name (This is the Firewall ALLOW RULES page):
HAL_UDP show details
Protocol UDP
Source IP 192.168.1.10 (the router always assigns this IP # to my computer)
Source Netmask 255.255.255.255 (I have NO IDEA how to set this)
Source Port Range 0 : 1024 (this is my guess at the port range)
Destination IP 192.168.1.1 (this is the router's IP address)
Destination Netmask 255.255.255.255 (I have NO IDEA how to set this)
Destination Port Range 0 : 1024 (this is my guess at the port range)
Mode Log
Direction Both
delete hide details modify
--------------------------------------------------

HAL_TCP show details
Protocol TCP
Source IP 192.168.1.10 (the router always assigns this IP # to my computer)
Source Netmask 255.255.255.255 (I have NO IDEA how to set this)
Source Port Range 0 : 1024 (this is my guess at the port range)
Destination IP 192.168.1.1 (this is the router's IP address)
Destination Netmask 255.255.255.255 (I have NO IDEA how to set this)
Destination Port Range 0 : 1024 (this is my guess at the port range)
Mode Log
Direction Both
delete hide details modify
--------------------------------------------------
Basically I want to only allow communication between my computer & the router (to the web of course), with only the least possible ports open & IP address range necessary between them.
Is/are there any particular port(s) that need to be left open, such as UDP: 137-138 & TCP: 137-139 ??? I had also read somewhere that there was something about DNS lookup on Port 53 (I think?).
Without the above ALLOW rules in place, I can still connect to the web (with port 80 only left open).
(On the DENY rules page, ALL Inbound & Outbound ports are closed, except port 80 on Outbound...)
--------------------------------------------------


Another one of the things that I have been experimenting with is the Network Settings in the Control Panel on My Computer:
Start>Settings>Control Panel>Network>Configuration Tab>TCP/IP Properties>IP Address tab, with the following two radio button options:

- obtain an IP address automatically (was set that way before I began experimenting)
- specify an IP address (this is where I thought I might get some results)

Specify An IP Address:
192.168.1.10 (I tried the number normally assigned by the router)
Subnet Mask:
xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx (I have no Idea what this is or what to input here!)
--------------------------------------

At first I tried the IP address that is automatically assigned by the router to the computer on startup:
192.168.1.10 (this is the standard assignment from the router to the one computer connected to it), but I have been unable to figure out (Again) what to input to the Subnet Mask. Any Ideas????
-------------------------------------

I did find a page on the web that had a subnet calculator:
http://www.subnetonline.com/pages/su...calculator.php

...but it asks for IP address ranges to input into the calculator:
"Please give me your last IP address in your range (i.e. 192.168.91.254) : "
"Please give me your first IP address in your range (i.e. 192.168.90.1) :"

& every guess I have made so far as to what that is has returned only the inability to get onto the web, but in every case I was able to communicate with the router.

If there are any guru's here on this subject, I would greatly appreciate any input. If not, then could someone direct me to a website where I can learn about this stuff, as long as it's not Wikipedia (been there & several other places). Maybe some web site made for IP morons or something. I intend to continue until I learn this stuff, however long it takes......Thanks.....
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Old 04-19-2011, 05:25 PM   #2
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Welcome to the forum IP Newbie.

The subnet mask setting would be 255.255.255.0 by default. You will also need to identify the Default Gateway. I would suspect that it would be 192.168.1.1 based on your IP address but it could be something else. You can learn what is by typing "ipconfig /all" at the command prompt when your connection is active. FYI: That will also show you the Subnet Mask.

The attempts at accessing your network are totally normal. Some are malicious but many are not. The malicious ones are typically bot computers looking for servers on the frequent ports of 80, 8080 and 21. If there is not one there, they just move on to the next IP address but they will continue to retry your IP at some interval depending on their setup in the hopes that they will someday find a server there. The non-malicious attempts are companies like Google, Yahoo and MSN also looking for web servers. They are looking to index the server for use in their search engines. There are also DNS servers that constantly probe IP addresses looking for servers to index. As long as you don't have any ports forwarded to any of your computers, you will be safe.

As far as outbound ports, most people just use personal firewalls on their individual computers. They are notified by the firewall when something tries to access the internet. Things like auto-updaters and so on. I rarely block outbound ports in my routers.

I think the simplest way to understand a router/firewall is to know that it blocks ALL unsolicited inbound traffic. It does not usually block outbound traffic and it does not block solicited in bound traffic.

Solicited inbound traffic would be the data needed for you to view a given webpage on your computer when you request to go to that website. For example, when you typed the address for our website in your browser, you requested the text and graphics that our site is comprised of. The firewall is aware of the request and allows the inbound data.
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Old 04-20-2011, 01:43 AM   #3
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Smile Thank You ! ! !

I appreciate any help I can get in figuring all this stuff out & I will try these things one at a time. I may be a little slow at getting back to you because I have to repeatedly do a complete shutdown of both computer & router before trying anything new.

ps. I posted this question at another Tech forum & the most I got as a response was that I was working with old, obsolete hardware, and that I should buy a new wireless router. I got this router new out-of-the-box last year! Besides, I am working on a nostalgic Win98SE operating system more for historical/restoration reasons, as someone might restore an antique Model T Ford (with a few custom enhancements, paint, wheels, supercharger, Klingon cloaking device, ect...).

Thanks again & I'll report back soon.
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Old 04-20-2011, 06:51 AM   #4
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Thumbs up Eureka ! ! !

It worked perfectly ! ! !

Thanks Shnerdly ! ! !

I haven't actually powered down the router yet, but I did restart the computer and it came back online still connected to the router and to the internet.

You were right about the default gateway also.

On the "ipconfig /all" command, I had to use the MS-DOS window for running old ms-dos games and programs in Windows mode. I didn't try going in actual DOS to run IPCONFIG & it wouldn't run in Windows mode from the Start>Run>ipconfig /all command prompt.

Also, I was wondering if you could tell by looking at some of the IPCONFIG results to see if they look more or less normal:

Host Name.............................................. : (I left this out/wasn't sure about the security)
DNS Servers........................................... : 192.168.1.1
Node Type.............................................. : Broadcast
NetBios Scope ID...................................:
IP Routing Enabled.................................: No
WINS Proxy Enabled..............................: No
NetBIOS Resolution Uses DNS................: No

Ethernet Adapter.........:

Description....................................... .......: AMD HomeLan Adapter
Physical Address.....................................: (I left this out/wasn't sure about the security)
DHCP Enabled.........................................: Yes
IP Address........................................... ...: 192.168.1.10
Subnet Mask...........................................: 255.255.255.0
Default Gateway.....................................: 192.168.1.1
DHCP Server............................................ :
Primary WINS Server...............................:
Secondary WINS Server..........................:
Lease Obtained........................................: 04 19 11 10:34:59 PM
Lease Expired........................................... : 04 20 11 10:34:59 PM

Thanks Again.....
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Old 04-20-2011, 09:19 AM   #5
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Your ipconfig results look normal.

As far as running Win98, That's up to you but it has some known security issues when on the internet or even on a LAN if you have any private data.

I have a collection of "old" computers dating back to 1983 (TI 99-4A), before IBM introduced their first Home PC and as new as a Dell PIII. All are in perfect condition inside and out and all of them work. I have one that is an all-in-one IBM PS2 with an 8088 processor at 4.77mhz and CGA color graphics. I have it setup with a memory expansion card of 1.5MB and a real time clock card. It also has a 30MB HDD with IBM-DOS 3.2 and Windows 1.1 which is no more then a menu system. In total I have 11 "antique" computers.
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Old 04-21-2011, 12:23 AM   #6
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Default OOPS ! ! ! ...I spoke too soon...

After I shut everything down (including the router) for the day & restarted everything later this afternoon, I started having several problems.

It seems that the stats I posted were while the router was still plugged into the power outlet or something. Anyway, after starting everything back up today, the router came on as usual and the computer connected to it. I accessed the router through the browser (http://192.168.1.1/htmlV_Generic/maint_FwLog.asp#) to check the logs and look other things over, when the router LED light showing the internet connection started blinking erratically and finally went out, showing the connection to the internet to be disconnected.

I have the router set to automatically re-establish a connection on it's own, and so it did several times over, only to go offline repeatedly. During the 3-5 minutes while it showed online status, I tried to connect to an internet website, but failed. I finally stopped it manually and reset everything back to get online.

------------------------------------
Actually I should describe the arrangement of LED's on the router if you're not familiar with the Westell Model 6100. They are labled as follows (left to right from front):

1) Power (always lit)
2) Ethernet (this light has been blinking non-stop from the day it came out of the box!)
3) USB (empty/just a space in the box. This is no USB connection installed in this router)
4) DSL (always lit during normal operation)
5) Internet (normally steady unless there is internet activity, or in the process of going out & disconnecting)

The only wire connections the router has are the phone line connection plugin & the larger plugin that only plugs into the back of the computer into the ISDN card that came out with the old Compaq computer. I wouldn't know how to make several computers plug into the one router, as in a network of multiple computers. In fact, the ISDN card has never been used in 10+ years, until I got the router last November.
------------------------------------

I went back and checked the "ipconfig /all" settings and then found that the stats I posted had changed. To my memory the settings that have actually changed are:

DNS Servers........................................... : (blank)
This was blank, but I went into "Network Configuration" and manually set it to the original 192.168.1.1 on the "DNS Configuration" tab

DHCP Enabled.........................................: No (was originally "Yes")
DHCP Server............................................ : blank/empty (was originally set to 192.168.1.1)
I think there is a setting for DHCP in the router settings themselves, but haven't attempted anything so far with the router, and I couldn't find anything in Network Configuration referring to DHCP in the computers' settings.

Also, the "Lease Obtained/Lease Expired" dates were NOT present either. They were also blank.

I'd have to go back and reset everything back to be absolutely sure that these were the only things that were changed (I'm pretty sure that was it though).

There is one other thing that I have meant to ask someone about regarding the "Ethernet" LED light: from the first day that I got the thing, it has never ceased to stop blinking. The manual says that none of the lights should blink after the connection has been established, but doesn't explain why or what to do about it. About all that any of these "help" manuals ever seem to be able to do is explain (in great detail) how to turn on the power button, or how to operate the right mouse click button menu... (very frustrating).


ps: I also have a IBM PS/2 that was given to me several years ago. It did have a fair amount of software for it, but I think the previous owner left the 3 1/4 floppy disks on top of a large floor speaker (or near a television), or maybe the old floppy drive is out. That's another one of those things I've been meaning to get to.

I originally started out with a "Tandy Color Computer 3" with 128K memory (64K color memory) and another 64K for raw, hardcore processing power! I actually used to be able to write some pretty mean Extended Color BASIC programs. The longest one I ever wrote was somewhere in the neighborhood of 600+ lines for an old Startrek Variation. Unfortunately, the processor finally ran out of memory and couldn't load up anymore. After that, I started using multiple 5 1/4" disks and loaded them one at a time to operate them as separate larger subroutines, through a sort of main menu program that ran all the time on a separate drive (kinda like an early operating system).

I think that BASIC ruined me though. I tried learning Python a couple years ago & got into some of it, but I have never been able to catch on or visualize how these languages work in my head! I feel like a rat in a maze when thinking about the way the various scripts interact with each other.

What's worse is that I thought I could borrow some script here and there from the Open Source people (like Sourceforge) and maybe compile something. BIG MISTAKE! Learning to write some Python script is simple compared to figuring how to compile something like C++ ! ! !

Thanks
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Old 04-21-2011, 10:42 AM   #7
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I have never worked on an ISDN setup but most internet connections have an order that the equipment should start in. In cable modems, especially if you install a new router, you need to allow the cable modem to boot before powering on the router because the router is going to request an address from the modem. If the modem isn't ready, the router will pick a default address that will be on the wrong subnet or no address at all which will prevent any connection.

Out of curiosity, why do you power the modem and router off. Is the ISDN not intended to be a full time connection? The router should protect you from any outside influence if it's doing it's job.

It's funny you mention Tandy. I have several Tandy computers. My second computer after, the one after the TI994A was a Tandy TRS80 Model 4P which was considered a portable. It ran TRS-DOS and I had the first version of DeskMate on 5.25 floppy for it. I also have a TRS80 Model 4 Desktop unit. My first computer with a HDD was a Tandy TL1000 (40mb IDE). It's a 80286 processor but still has the XT bus. I'm not aware of any other such computer. I also have several (about 10 or 12) TRS80 Model 100 and 102 computers. They are considered the first laptop. They run about 25 hours on 4 AA Batteries. I was a real Tandy fan during their day. These are all still part of my collection.
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Old 04-21-2011, 10:53 AM   #8
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Quote:
I went back and checked the "ipconfig /all" settings and then found that the stats I posted had changed. To my memory the settings that have actually changed are:

DNS Servers........................................... : (blank)
This was blank, but I went into "Network Configuration" and manually set it to the original 192.168.1.1 on the "DNS Configuration" tab

DHCP Enabled.........................................: No (was originally "Yes")
DHCP Server............................................ : blank/empty (was originally set to 192.168.1.1)
I think there is a setting for DHCP in the router settings themselves, but haven't attempted anything so far with the router, and I couldn't find anything in Network Configuration referring to DHCP in the computers' settings.

Also, the "Lease Obtained/Lease Expired" dates were NOT present either. They were also blank.
The things you see here are normal. The DNS server will be assigned by your ISP if you don't assign one.

DHCP is set to no because you have assigned a static IP and there is no DHCP server because of that.

When your not connected, there is no lease obtained because there is no connection.
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Old 04-22-2011, 07:51 AM   #9
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Default Subnet Cont'd

On the ISDN:
My proper use of definitions and terminology may be inaccurate, so I apologize for any misunderstandings. The ethernet card is internally plugged into the computer's motherboard. Here is some of the info I grabbed from the System Information and the System Record Utility:

151670-00A-004 Diamond 10MB HomePNA PCI Card
Diamond HomePNA & Ethernet Based Adapter

The reason I was thinking ISDN was because of the "ISDN Configuration Wizard" in the Program Files Communication folder. My mistake. I was originally looking for an ethernet wizard or something and got side-tracked with that piece of useless junk that I never deleted. I've read that many of the pros called it, "It Still Does Nothing" (ISDN). I dunno...

I'm going to have to retrace my steps and get back to you on this. I set everything back a little while ago to the settings you first advised & now the router and computer are communicating just fine again....????

Sometimes when the router has acted up previously, the only solution seemed to be powering down first, restarting, disconnecting the router from the internet (while it's still connected) and then restarting again. Maybe it's something weird with it's internal memory...??? I've read similar posts by others on the internet regarding this particular model. I'll get back on that one.

-----------
Tandy:
Yep!, the "Tandy Color Computer" series came out circa 1984-85+? Seems to me that they might have also been called "TRS 80 Color Computer" or something like that. The computer sales guy at the Radio Shack told me then that they were almost the same as the TRS 80, but also had the color memory added in. I think maybe they were a mid-stage between the idea of everything combined into a keybord & the later desktop towers..???

I don't remember the processor, but the 80286 processor that you mention seems very familiar to the original specs I looked at (20+ years ago). The Color Computer (II & III) basically looked like a big, fat keyboard, with a cartridge slot on the right side, for popping in game cartridges, a multi-pack interface (for multiple cartridges), a external 5 1/4 floppy disk drive, a "Direct Connect" phone modem, Sound/Music synthesizer, games, ect.. I used to be a "Dungeons Of Daggorath" game addict. I was on the Compuserve Net back around 1984-85 with my Color Computer (called COCO) using a Direct Connect modem. The closest ISP was 150 miles away and the high long distance charges kept my time online very short indeed.

The computer cost around $135-$150 and didn't come with a monitor. I still have both a Color Computer II & a Color Computer III and they worked the last time I got them out of the closet. The difference really between them is that the CC2 was a 64K model, and the CC3 was upgraded to 128K. It was basically the same as the CC2, but it had an extra 64K added in for those awesome color line, circle, & paint graphics! Another reason they called it a "Color Computer" was that you needed to plug the RF cable into the (75 ohm) TV antenna leads of your Color Television. It could be plugged into the computer monitors of the day through a separate video port, if you were willing to buy a monitor (sold separately).

I still have all of the original software I purchased on the 5 1/4 floppy disks. I always made copies of the original software and used them instead, so the original 5 1/4's have really never been used. I've thought about transferring the software to my Win98 hard drive through the 5 1/4 floppy drive and uploading them to the internet for other people who are collectors. As far as I know it's now all considered to be abandonware and free for anyone to use.

My memory is a little foggy, but I seem to remember that by holding down the ctr/alt keys and pressing on the power button on startup, a picture would come up on the screen of the original computer designers grinning from ear-to-ear. Pretty impressive for those days. But then you had to hit the power button again to clear the memory & restart for normal operation.

I never actually got my hands on a TRS 80, but I mistakenly went back to Radio Shack shortly after & bought the "TRS-80 Level II Basic, a self-teaching guide" (cat. no 62-6021) paperback book. It's a little dog-eared and yellowed on the outside but still in pretty good condition and there are no torn pages or graffitti in it. It sold for $9.85, but the Radio Shack salesguy had it for $9.95 + tax (1980's money...HUH!) still on the front cover.
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Old 04-22-2011, 09:56 AM   #10
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The TRS80 computers were all monochrome. All the ones I have seen are green screens. They would only run proprietary software because the OS was proprietary. It was called TRS-DOS. The TRS meant Tandy Radio Shack. When they retired the line, they sold the OS to a company called Logical Systems. They renamed the OS LS-DOS.

The CC2 and 3 were the first of the color series. Then they moved to the 1000 series that was the 8088 processor and then added variations to the series such as the TL1000 that I have. I don't recall the series numbers but they made computers up to and including the 80486 machines.
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Old 04-26-2011, 12:36 PM   #11
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Default Subnet Mask Question

What is the subnet mask for 192.168.1.1?

Is there a simple calculator or way to calculate the subnet masks?

thanks...
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Old 04-26-2011, 01:42 PM   #12
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Quote:
Originally Posted by IP Newbie View Post
What is the subnet mask for 192.168.1.1?

Is there a simple calculator or way to calculate the subnet masks?

thanks...
The subnet mask isn't calculated by the IP address you are using. In simple terms, it determines who can connect to your computer or network.

It's comprised of 4 octets. The normal or default subnet mask would be 255.255.255.0. In the current standard, being IPv4, IP Addresses can only be in the range of 0.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255 with no exceptions. There are a few ranges and IP's that are reserved for specific uses such as the 192.168.xxx.xxx that is reserved for internal IP addresses or addresses that can not be seen from the internet. There are some others but I think you get the picture. The subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 means the first 3 octets must match your IP address. if your address is 192.168.1.10 then only computers that are on the 192.168.1 subnet can access your computer. If your subnet mask was 255.255.0.0 then any computer on your network that is addresses as 192.168.xxx.xxx could access your computer assuming you have shared resources and a firewall that allows the access.

It's more complicated then that but that should give you the basics.

Here you can find more detailed info
.
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Old 04-27-2011, 12:46 AM   #13
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typical mask will be 255.255.255.0 because 192.168.1.1 falls within the class C range

...but it really depends on what the network admin decided to do...
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